Response cards

„Response cards (RCs) are cards, signs, or items that student hold up to display their answers to teacher – posed questions or problems.
With preprinted RCs, students select the card with the answer of their choice. Examples include yes/true and no/false cards, colors, traffic signs, molecular structures, and parts of speech.
With write-on RCs, students mark their answers on blank cards that they erase between opportunities to respond. Write – on RCs can be custom made for specific curriculum content. For example, music student might mark notes on an RC on which the tremble and bass clef scales are drawn in permanent marker.”

Źródło: “How to improve student learning in every classroom now” Janet S.Twyman, William L.Heward, International Journal of Educational Research 87 (2018), 78-90

Choral responding

„Choral responding – students responding orally in unison to a series of questions presented by the teacher – is the simplest, quickest way to increase student participations during group instruction.
Choral responding (CR) can be used effectively with any curriculum content that meets three criteria: (a) each question, problem or item presented has only one correct answer; (b) each question can be answered with brief oral response or verbal chain (e.g. counting by 5); and (c) the material can be presented at a lively pace.”

Źródło: “How to improve student learning in every classroom now” Janet S.Twyman, William L.Heward, International Journal of Educational Research 87 (2018), 78-90

Group instruction is the global norm

„Group instruction is the global norm […] and the most common teaching arrangement regardless of grade level (Hollo&Hirn 2015).
Instructing more than one student, be it an entire class or a small group, presents five simultaneous challenges: maintain students’ attention, give each student sufficient opportunities to respond, provide individualized feedback for students’ responses, monitor each students’ learning, and prevent and deal with disruptive behavior.”

Źródło: “How to improve student learning in every classroom now” Janet S.Twyman, William L.Heward, International Journal of Educational Research 87 (2018), 78-90

Children who use 30 to 100 pictures often begin speaking while handing over their selected pictures

„These authors claimed that children who use 30 to 100 pictures often begin speaking while handing over their selected pictures. They claimed that 30% of users begin to use single word utterances while using PECS, and 59% develop independent speech if training begins before age 5 and continues for at least a year (Bondy&Frost, 1994b)”

Bondy, A. & Frost, L. 1994 b The picture exchange communication system. Focus on Autistic Behavior, 11, 1-19

Źródło: Assessing Topography-Based Versus Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior: A Comparison From the Literature” Bloh. Ch., Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 2016, Vol. 16, No. 1, 16

Tincani study

„In the Tincani (2004) study, TB and SB showed equal acquisition of independent verbal operants. One participant responded better in this area to TB while the other responded better to SB methods. While the author suggested that acquisition of verbal behavior using a communication method (either TB or SB) may vary as a function of individual skills prior to intervention, acquisition of any behavior may depend upon a participant’s skill level prior to instruction regardless of methods. This conclusion is supported by Vignes (2007), who stressed that individual results of TB and SB training cannot be generalized to a whole population”.

Źródło: Assessing Topography-Based Versus Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior: A Comparison From the Literature” Bloh. Ch., Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 2016, Vol. 16, No. 1, 14

Both TB and SB researchers have their supporters

„Both TB and SB researchers have their supporters. Interestingly, both camps at times make the same claims (quicker acquisition, better generalization, etc.). Adkins and Axelrod (2001) claimed that SB methods were more effective for their participants in meeting trials to criterion, generalizations, and spontaneous emission. C.T. Sundberg and M.L. Sundberg (1990) posited that TB methods allowed participants to aquire verbal operants and form equivalence more quickly.”

Źródło: Assessing Topography-Based Versus Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior: A Comparison From the Literature” Bloh. Ch., Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 2016, Vol. 16, No. 1, 13

Stimulus – Selection – Based Verbal Behavior

Z literautry: Stimulus – Selection – Based Verbal Behavior

Stimulus – Selection – Based Verbal Behavior (SB verbal bahavior) = „ the response form consists of pointing, touching, or otherwise indicating a particular stimulus that is presented within an array of stimuli, for example, selecting an icon or picture of a car out of an array of three when prompted.

[…] SB verbal behavior involves a conditional discrimination that may require a proficient scanning repertoire in which the correct response may become stronger under the appropriate conditions, that is, motivating operations.“

Źródło: Assessing Topography-Based Versus Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior: A Comparison From the Literature” Bloh. Ch., Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 2016, Vol. 16, No. 1, 12-13

Topography – based Verbal Behavior

Z literatury: Topography – based Verbal Behavior

Topography – based verbal behavior (TB verbal behavior) = „speaking, signing, and writing are methods of communiacation during which each response involves a diffenrent topography. […] Responses differ from one another in response topography, direction, duration, and force of action.
[…] There is a point-to-point correspondence between response form and stimulus in TB verbal behavior – one stimulus for one response.

Źródło: Assessing Topography-Based Versus Stimulus-Selection-Based Verbal Behavior: A Comparison From the Literature” Bloh. Ch., Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 2016, Vol. 16, No. 1, 12

…to be continued